MIT Invents Remote Controlled Shape Shifting Robotic Screen

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Technology is not growing! Its widening in every way and every day. Humans thinking how to do rather what to do. So now we going to see what MIT scientists created.

Scientists at MIT, have invented a screen which can be touched and manipulated by a person remotely. So if you want to move an object that’s on the screen, you can do it from anywhere on the planet.

In the future, where a more complex version could work on a larger scale, maybe a full size person could be recreated to interact remotely.

The co-creator Sean Follimer says: “As humans, we have evolved to interact physically with our environments, but in the 21st century, we’re missing out on all of this tactile sensation that is meant to guide us, limit us, and make us feel more connected. In the transition to purely digital interfaces, something profound has been lost…Whatever it ends up looking like, the UI of the future won’t be made of just pixels, but time and form as well. And that future is only five or ten years away. It’s time for designers to start thinking about what that means now.”

The Tangible Media Group at MIT’s Media Lab fashioned the display made of atoms, not pixels, and named it the inFORM. The plastic pins are controlled by a motor which is connected to a laptop.  The laptop can then render digital and real-life objects thanks to the Microsoft Kinect it uses for its vision.

What are the possible applications of this technology?  Well, think of this…Two people remotely connected on Skype could physically interact, not just see each other and hear each other, but actually touch one another. Obviously in these preliminary stages the interaction would be very basic, such as patting a ball back and forth, for example. Or two 3D modellers could labour sculpting something from different sides of the screen.

Just how big are porn sites?

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It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a person in possession of a fast internet connection must be in want of some porn.

While it’s difficult domain to penetrate — hard numbers are few and far between — we know for a fact that porn sites are some of the most trafficked parts of the internet. According to Google’s DoubleClick Ad Planner, which tracks users across the web with a cookie, dozens of adult destinations populate the top 500 websites. Xvideos, the largest porn site on the web with 4.4 billion page views per month, is three times the size of CNN or ESPN, and twice the size of Reddit. LiveJasmin isn’t much smaller. YouPorn, Tube8, and Pornhub — they’re all vast, vast sites that dwarf almost everything except the Googles and Facebooks of the internet.

While page views are a fine starting point, they only tell you that X porn site is more popular than Y non-porn site. Four billion page views sure sounds like a lot, but it’s only when you factor in what those porn surfers are actually doing that the size and scale of adult websites truly comes into focus.

We’ll start by laying the ground work, and then on the second page we have some real world figures from YouPorn, the second largest porn site on the web. If you like, take a moment to try and estimate the amount of traffic that YouPorn handles every second. Let us know in the comments if your guess is anywhere near.

Scale

Xvideos in Ad PlannerThe main difference between porn and non-porn sites is the average duration of a visit: For a news site like Engadget or ExtremeTech, an average visit is usually between three and six minutes; enough time to read one or two stories. The average time spent on a porn site, however, is between 15 and 20 minutes.

Then you need to factor in that most websites are predominantly text and images, while the largest porn sites push streaming video. When you load the ExtremeTech home page, you’re talking about a couple of megabytes, and then maybe 500 kilobytes if you load an article. When you stream porn, assuming a low resolution of 480×200, you’re looking at around 100 kilobytes per second — which, over 15 minutes, is around 90 megabytes.

Then you need to multiply 90 megabytes by the number of monthly visits — which is around 350 million for Xvideos. This comes to around 29 petabytes of data transferred every month, or 50 gigabytes per second. To put this into comparison, your home internet connection is probably capable of transferring a couple of megabytes per second, which is about 25,000 times smaller.

In short, porn sites cope with astronomical amounts of data. The only sites that really come close in term of raw bandwidth are YouTube or Hulu, but even then YouPorn is something like six times larger than Hulu.

Infrastructure

Serving up videos requires a lot more resources than plain text and images, in terms of storage, CPU cycles, internal I/O, and bandwidth.

Backblaze Storage Pod partially filled caseWhile it obviously varies from site to site, most adult sites will probably store in the region of 50 to 200 terabytes of porn. This is quite a lot for a website (only something like Google, Facebook, Blogger, or YouTube would store more data), but in a world where 2TB drives are cheap and plentiful, this isn’t ultimately a very large amount. Last year we wrote about a Backblaze storage pod that can store 135TB in a 4U case, for just $7,400.

CPU cycles and I/O will be a function of the bitrate of the streaming video and the number of page views. First the porn site has to serve up a dynamic, searchable database of thousands of videos, and then, when someone clicks on a video, that file needs to be read from a hard disk and streamed over the internet. If you’ve ever transferred a lot of big files over a local network (i.e. stressed both your hard drive and Ethernet port) you will know how taxing this is.

Actual hardware requirements are almost impossible to derive (they’re not publicized), but in the case of a large porn site we’re probably talking about racks of quad-CPU servers, gigabit switches, and load balancers. Software-wise, most large porn sites will use a very-high-throughput database such as Redis to store and serve videos, and a light-weight HTTP server like Nginx to serve up the web pages.

Finally, bandwidth. Referring back to our Xvideos example (based on an Ad Planner estimate), a large porn site will have to have enough connectivity to serve up 50 gigabytes per second, or 400Gbps. Bear in mind this is an average data rate, too: At peak time, Xvideos might burst to 1,000Gbps (1Tbps) or more. To put this into perspective, there’s only about 15Tbps of connectivity between London and New York.

There are only so many ways of coping with this much traffic: You set up your own data center, rent a few racks in a very large data center, or use a cloud provider like Amazon AWS or Microsoft Azure.

Gauss’ super-virus found

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A new “state-sponsored” cyber surveillance virus dubbed “Gauss” has stolen passwords and key data from thousands of bank users in the Middle East, the top IT security firm Kaspersky Lab said on Thursday.

According to Kaspersky, Gauss was a complete and “complex, nation-state sponsored cyber-espionage toolkit,” which aims to steal sensitive data, with a specific focus on browser passwords and online banking account details.

It has similarities to Stuxnet and Flame, the Russian company said in a statement, noting that although the new malware program was discovered in June 2012 it appears to have been in use since September 2011.

Gauss has the same source code as Flame, which was apparently designed to steal information from Iran’s suspected nuclear programme, with the United States and Israel suspected of being behind its origination.

Stuxnet was used to attack Iran’s nuclear centrifuges.

Kaspersky said Gauss had a specific focus on banking and financial data and its Trojan capability was used to steal detailed information about infected PCs including browser history, cookies, passwords, and system configurations.

“It is also capable of stealing access credentials for various online banking systems and payment methods,” said Kaspersky, whose virus detection experts discovered and named Gauss.

In July 2012, command and control servers used by Gauss’s unknown originators stopped functioning, according to the statement.

“Analysis of Gauss shows it was designed to steal data from several Lebanese banks including the Bank of Beirut, EBLF, BlomBank, ByblosBank, FransaBank and Credit Libanais,” and also “targets users of Citibank and PayPal,” it added.

Gauss’s main module was named by its creators after the German mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, according to Kaspersky.

Top Ten Most Infamous Software Bugs Of All Time

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Wired News’s 10 Worst Bugs in History.

As we know the software bugs are bring down systems and it gives unreliable information and plays in.But I provide top 10 worst tragedies of software bugs……

# 10 – Mars Climate Orbiter Crashes (1998)
A sub contractor who designed the navigation system on the orbiter used imperial units of measurement instead of the metric system that was specified by NASA.
Result – The $125 million dollar space craft attempted to stabilize its orbit too low in the Martian atmosphere, and crashed into the red planet.

# 9 – Mariner I space probe (1962)
While transcribing a handwritten formula into navigation computer code, a programmer missing a single superscript bar. This single omission caused the navigation computer to treat normal variations as serious errors, causing it to wildly overreact with corrections during launch. To be fair to the programmer, the original formula was written in pencil on a single piece notebook paper – not exactly the best system for transcribing mission critical information. Then again, this was 1962…
Result – 237 seconds into the mission that was supposed to sent Mariner I to Venus, the space craft was so far off course that Mission Control had to destroy it over the Atlantic. The cost of the spacecraft was $18.2 million in 1962.

# 8 – Ariane 5 Flight 501 (1996)
NASA certainly isn’t alone in its spacecraft destroying software bugs though. In 1996, Europe’s newest unmanned satellite-launching rocket, the Ariane 5, reused working software from its predecessor, the Ariane 4. Unfortunately, the Ariane 5’s faster engines exploited a bug that was not realized in previous models. In essence, the software tried to cram a 64-bit number into a 16-bit space. The resulting overflow conditions crashed both the primary and backup computers (which were both running the exact same software).
Result – 36.7 seconds into its maiden launch, the self destruct safety mechanism was activated due to the computer failures, and the spacecraft disintegrated in a spectacular fireball. The Ariane 5 had cost nearly $8 billion to develop, and was carrying a $500 million satellite payload when it exploded.

# 7 – EDS Fails Child Support (2004)
In 2004, EDS software giant introduced a large, complex IT system to the U.K.’s Child Support Agency (CSA). At the exact same time, the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) decided to restructure the entire agency. The restructure and the new software were completely incompatible, and irreversible errors were introduced as a result. With over 500 bugs still reported as open in the new system, the clash of the two events has crippled the CSA’s network.
Result – The system somehow managed to overpay 1.9 million people, underpay another 700,000, had $7 billion in uncollected child support payments, a backlog of 239,000 cases, 36,000 new cases “stuck” in the system, and has cost the UK taxpayers over $1 billion to date.

# 6 – Soviet Gas Pipeline Explosion (1982)
When the CIA (allegedly) discovered that the Soviet Union was (allegedly) trying to steal sensitive U.S. technology for its operation of their trans-Siberian pipeline, CIA operatives (allegedly) introduced a bug into the Canadian built system that would pass Soviet inspection but fail when in operation.
Result – The largest non-nuclear explosion in the planet’s history. And a new-found respect (fear?) of the CIA.

# 5 – Black Monday (1987)
On October 19, 1987, a long running bull market was halted by a rash of SEC investigations of insider trading. At the time, computer trading models were (and still are) common in the trading market, and most had triggers in place to sell stocks if their value dropped to a certain point. As investors began to dump stocks affected by the investigations, their stocks dropped, causing the computer triggers to kick in. The flood of computer issued stock executions, coupled with investor liquidation, overwhelmed the market and caused multiple systems to crash. This in turn triggered even more automated sell executions, and panic quickly set in. Investors were selling blind world wide, stocks were virtually liquidated, and market values plummeted.
Result – Technically beginning in Hong Kong (where markets opened first), the crash had world wide implications. The impact in the US was devastating. the Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted 508 points, losing 22.6% of its total value. The S&P 500 dropped 20.4%. This was the greatest loss Wall Street ever suffered in a single day.

# 4 – Therac-25 Medical Accelerator (1985)
The Therac-25 was a radiation therapy device built by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and CGR of France. It could deliver two different kinds of radiation therapy: either a low-power electron beam (beta particles) or X-rays. Unfortunately, the operating system used by the Therac-25 was designed and built by a programmer who had no formal training. The OS contained a subtle race condition, and because of it a technician could accidentally configure the Therac-25 so the electron beam would fire in high-power mode without the proper patient shielding.
Result – In at least 6 incidents (with more suspected), patients were accidentally administered lethal or near lethal doses of radiation – approximately 100 times the intended dose. At least five deaths are directly attributed to it, with others seriously injured.

#3 – Multidata Systems (2000)
Another medical system makes the list, this time at the National Cancer Institute in Panama City. This one is a combination of software bug as well as user error. A U.S. firm, Multidata Systems International, created therapy planning software that was designed to calculate the proper dosage of radiation for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The software allows a radiation specialist to draw on their screen where they would be placing metal shields (called “blocks”) on the patient during treatment. These blocks protect healthy tissue from the radiation. The software itself only allows the placement of 4 blocks, but the Panamanian doctors normally used five. To get past the limitation in the software, the doctors decided to trick the software by drawing all five blocks as a single block with a hole in the middle. Unfortunately, a bug in the Multidata software caused it to give different results depending on how the hole was drawn. Draw it one way and the dosage was correct. Draw it in the other direction and the software recommended twice the correct dosage.
Result – At least eight patients die, while another 20 receive overdoses likely to cause significant health problems. The physicians, who were legally required to double-check the computer’s calculations by hand, are indicted for murder.

#2 – Patriot Missile Bug (1991)
During the first Gulf War, an American Patriot Missile system was deployed to protect US Troops, allies, and Saudi and Israeli civilians from Iraqi SCUD missile attacks. A software rounding error in the one of the early versions of the system incorrectly calculated the time, causing it to ignore some of the incoming targets.
Result – A Patriot Missile Battery in Saudi Arabia fails to intercept an incoming Iraqi SCUD. The missile destroyed an American Army barracks, killing 28 soldiers and injuring around 100 other people.

#1 World War III… Almost (1983)
Have you ever seen the movie War Game? Nobody knew at the time how very close this movie mimicked a real life near-disaster in the same year. In 1983, Soviet early warning satellites picked up sunlight reflections off cloud-tops and mistakenly interpreted them as missile launches in the United States. Software was in place to filter out false missile detections of this very nature, but a bug in the software let the alerts through anyway. The Russian system instantly sent priority messages up saying that the United States had launched five ballistic missiles. Protocol in such an event was to respond decisively, launching the entire soviet nuclear arsenal before any US missile detonations could disable their response capability. The duty officer for the system, one Lt Col Stanislav Petrov, intercepted the messages and flagged them as faulty, stopping the near-apocalypse. He claimed that he had a “funny feeling in my gut” about the attack, and reasoned if the U.S. was really attacking they would launch more than five missiles.
Result – Thankfully nothing. However, the world was literally minutes away from “Global Thermal Nuclear War”. Any retaliatory missile launched by the Soviets would have triggered a like response from the U.S., eventually leading to a total launch of all systems from both sides. (Like W.O.P.R., I would have much preferred a nice game of chess…)

Honorable Mention #1 – LA Airport Flights Grounded (2007)
A single faulty piece of embedded software, on a network card, sends out faulty data on the United States Customs and Border Protection network, bringing the entire system to a halt. Nobody is able to leave or enter the U.S. from the LA Airport for over eight hours.
Result – Over 17,000 planes grounded for the duration of the outage

Honorable Mention #2 – The Ping of Death (1995)
A lack of error handling in the IP fragmentation reassembly code makes it possible to crash many Windows, Macintosh, and Unix operating systems by sending a malformed “ping” packet from anywhere on the Internet.
Result – The blue screen of death and giggling teenage hackers all over the nation.

Password Hacking

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Password cracking is the process of recovering secret passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password.
Most passwords can be cracked by using following techniques :

1) Hashing :- Here we will refer to the one way function (which may be either an encryption function or cryptographic hash) employed as a hash and its output as a hashed password.
If a system uses a reversible function to obscure stored passwords, exploiting that weakness can recover even ‘well-chosen’ passwords.
One example is the LM hash that Microsoft Windows uses by default to store user passwords that are less than 15 characters in length.
LM hash breaks the password into two 7-character fields which are then hashed separately, allowing each half to be attacked separately.

Hash functions like SHA-512, SHA-1, and MD5 are considered impossible to invert when used correctly.

2) Guessing :-Many passwords can be guessed either by humans or by sophisticated cracking programs armed with dictionaries (dictionary based) and the user’s personal information.

Not surprisingly, many users choose weak passwords, usually one related to themselves in some way. Repeated research over some 40 years has demonstrated that around 40% of user-chosen passwords are readily guessable by programs. Examples of insecure choices include:

* blank (none)
* the word “password”, “passcode”, “admin” and their derivatives
* the user’s name or login name
* the name of their significant other or another person (loved one)
* their birthplace or date of birth
* a pet’s name
* a dictionary word in any language
* automobile licence plate number
* a row of letters from a standard keyboard layout (eg, the qwerty keyboard — qwerty itself, asdf, or qwertyuiop)
* a simple modification of one of the preceding, such as suffixing a digit or reversing the order of the letters.
and so on….

In one survery of MySpace passwords which had been phished, 3.8 percent of passwords were a single word found in a dictionary, and another 12 percent were a word plus a final digit; two-thirds of the time that digit was.

A password containing both uppercase &  lowercase characters, numbers and special characters too; is a strong password and can never be guessed.3) Default Passwords :- A moderately high number of local and online applications have inbuilt default passwords that have been configured by programmers during development stages of software. There are lots of applications running on the internet on which default passwords are enabled. So, it is quite easy for an attacker to enter default password and gain access to sensitive information. A list containing default passwords of some of the most popular applications is available on the internet.

Always disable or change the applications’ (both online and offline) default username-password pairs.

4) Brute Force :- If all other techniques failed, then attackers uses brute force password cracking technique. Here an automatic tool is used which tries all possible combinations of available keys on the keyboard. As soon as correct password is reached it displays on the screen.This techniques takes extremely long time to complete, but password will surely cracked.

Long is the password, large is the time taken to brute force it.

5) Phishing :- This is the most effective and easily executable password cracking technique which is generally used to crack the passwords of e-mail accounts, and all those accounts where secret information or sensitive personal information is stored by user such as social networking websites, matrimonial websites, etc.
Phishing is a technique in which the attacker creates the fake login screen and send it to the victim, hoping that the victim gets fooled into entering the account username and password. As soon as victim click on “enter” or “login” login button this information reaches to the attacker using scripts or online form processors while the user(victim) is redirected to home page of e-mail service provider.

Never give reply to the messages which are demanding for your username-password, urging to be e-mail service provider.

It is possible to try to obtain the passwords through other different methods, such as social engineering, wiretapping, keystroke logging, login spoofing, dumpster diving, phishing, shoulder surfing, timing attack, acoustic cryptanalysis, using a Trojan Horse or virus, identity management system attacks (such as abuse of Self-service password reset) and compromising host security.
However, cracking usually designates a guessing attack.

How to Build a Time Machine: A Documentary About Time Travel.

How to Build a Time Machine: A Documentary About Time Travel..

Underground Resistance: Inside the Secret World of French Hacker Artists.

Underground Resistance: Inside the Secret World of French Hacker Artists..

15 of the Very Best Classic Hot Summer Jams.

15 of the Very Best Classic Hot Summer Jams..

7 Free Education Websites You Don’t Want to Miss

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1. COURSERA
WHAT
 Coursera strives to make education accessible to anyone.
HOW Free courses online from world-class universities, including Princeton University and the University of Michigan. The topics are varied, and lectures are formatted into series of 15-minute-long clips. 
BONUS POINTS Freedom is the name of the game: students can watch videos at their convenience and in their own time.

2. UDACITY 
WHAT A free education website for brainy types, founded by four Stanford roboticists. 
HOW Udacity currently offers 11 courses , all of which are in science and math-related topics. According to the website, plans are underway to expand the curriculum. 
BONUS POINTS Udacity is free of deadlines, free of prerequisites, free of quizzes and other annoying school stuff. Needless to say, courses are also free of charge.

3. OPEN CULTURE
WHAT High-quality cultural and educational media.
HOW A staggering collection of 400 courses, online, for free, from Ivy League universities, such as Stanford, UCLA, Columbia and Oxford University. Courses run the gamut from science and art to math and economics.
BONUS POINTS Classic and indie films, including many from the 1940’s and 1950’s, are available to watch for free.

4. TED-ED
WHAT TED, The powerhouse of jaw-dropping lectures needs no introduction. Now, they’re bringing their talent into education with an offshoot, Ted-Ed. 
HOW A treasure trove of beautifully animated and gripping videos on a wide array of subjects, such as The Power of Simple Words  and How Many Universes are There.  All videos are under 10-minutes-long. 
BONUS POINTS Supplemental materials such as quizzes and discussion questions are also available.

5. MENTORMOB
WHAT Curating and ordering learning materials.
HOW MentorMob is like the YouTube of learning materials: users create learning “playlists” from first-rate websites.
BONUS POINTS MentorMob is a community, whose members share and rank each others’ learning playlists.

6. MEMRISE  
WHAT Effortless learning based on three pillars: science, fun and community.
HOW Based on scientific methods for implanting new information, Memrise proves that what may seem impossible is in fact doable – yes, even learning Mandarin Chinese.
BONUS POINTS The Guardian Wallcharts are mapped Memrise style, teaching you all about cheeses, herbs and other wonders of life.  

7. LEARNIST
WHAT Learnist is the Pinterest of learning.
HOW The interactive platform allows users collect teaching materials and educational content that are grouped into “boards”.  
BONUS POINTS The platform is equipped with the Learn it! bookmarklet, which enables picking images anywhere on the web and automatically shoots them to your Learnist board.

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